Wednesday, September 10, 2014

Fredrikstad. Fortress to Cultural Center

Fredrikstad has long housed defense works, including this fortress now turned cultural center. The shape of the 1663 fortress is the star design for the outer earthworks, enabling easy crossfire against invaders. It surrounded an entire town, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Fortifications_Heritage.  Its founding was within 5 years of Norway's losing the great Bohus Fortress to the south, to Sweden.

Cannon, Fredrikstad Fortress, Norway

The fortress saw battle in 1814, was used until 1903, became a garrison, then was abandoned for 
military use in 2003. 

Fortified gate door, Fredrikstad Fortress, Norway

The design incorporated Dutch plans, moats combined with earthworks, see http://www.visitnorway.com/en/where-to-go/east/fredrikstad/what-to-do-in-fredrikstad/attractions-in-fredrikstad/fredrikstad-fortress/
There is a drawbridge.


Munitions were kept underground to muffle the effect of explosions.


The town now is residential, with a variety of cultural and arts groups living and visiting there.

The eponymous Frederik II of Fredriksburg:  1534-1588. He was born in Denmark and was king of both Denmark and Norway.  He founded Fredrikstad, the town, in 1567; then it was later that the fortress star-walls were built to surround it. See biography at https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Frederick_II_of_Denmark.html


Find concerts, farm markets, art exhibits at Fredrikstad.


Lion's head gate, Fredrikstad.

Royal lion at gate, Fredrikstad Norway

Cobbles are stronger than asphalt.

Unlike the US where a property owner can be sued if a visitor is injured, in Norway one is expected to exercise care and not that where there are no fences, one may indeed fall in.


Waterfront warehouse, fishing dock, wall, at Fredrikstad NO. 


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