The Oseberg find dates from 834 CE, and was found in a mound at the nearby Oseberg farm. The cache displays opulence for two women buried in the ship, an older and a younger, a richer and a poorer, and items reflecting broad trade routes: fine textiles, carvings, see https://www.boundless.com/art-history/early-medieval-europe/the-vikings/the-oseberg-ship/>Runes, Tonsberg Viking Museum NO
- A mere 50 years earlier, 782 or so, was a watershed of Christian animosity and cultural blindness toward northern peoples who refused to convert as ordered. Denigrating Saxons as savages, Charlemagne slaughtered some 2500 multi-deist Saxon prisoners of war at Sachsenhain, Germany. Yet today, the more decentralized way of life, the independence and autonomy like the northerners, is now seen as an ideal of some "small government" political folk even today. Oddities of evolution.
Enough remains here, at Tonsberg, however, for a fine exploration at the museum.
1. Runes. Find them at http://www.arild-hauge.com/enruner.htm
2. Shipbuilding exhibit.
Viking women: strong roles.
6. Viking teeth. Good teeth here.
The length of the whale.
8. The Nazi Occupation.
Teaching about ideology. Learn the concept. Translation given is provided at end.
I believe these are among the people who tapped into the German Security Police phone lines, and reported out, known as the Fama Listening Group. They began their activities in Larvik, transcripts of conversations were made and transported out secretly to others and eventually to the Norwegian High Command in London. Ultimately, the transcripts were used in the Nuremberg trials.
9. The Saettargjerden, or Concordat 1277.
This agreement was executed between the new and powerful Catholic Church, through Archbishop Jon Raude, and King Magnus Lagabote, delineating which group had which powers, including the ecclesiastical court to hear its own matters free of the king; and the church got a cut on "custom" from shipping annually, and the king had to pay a tithe. The church could mint coin, and got protected status for pilgrims.. It shows the force of the church in compelling a king to deal directly with it. This had been a usual course in mainstream Europe, but was new in Norway. Our museum lady described how the landscape-townscape changed after that. There were more than seven steeples erected like spears to the sky.
2. The other town museum is the Haugar Vestfold Museum, with art and architecture. Near the Haugar Vestfold is a burial mound where sons of Harald Fairhair, Olof and Sigrod (spellings vary), killed by their brother Eric Bloodaxe in a battle for the throne, are said to be buried. We parked up there, but did not see much.
* Translation, ideology exhibit, Slottsfjelsmuseet, partial from large exhibit:
The term ideology stems from the Greek words idea (concept) and logos (knowledge/teachings). An ideology contains the most crucial views of a political group or a political party.
Ideology is a way of thinking based on political or philosophical theories about how society ought to be governed. Most ideologies attempt to answer central questions such as how society works and ought to be, and which measures are necessary in order to change society according to the ideology. The various ideologies focus on different things and not all answer the same question.
An ideology can be seen as a continuous and extensive vision, like a common understanding or a set of ideas put forward by one dominant class of society, aiming to encompass all members of that soceity. Ideologies are systems, which concern issues that adhere to the general public and thus involve concepts, which are central to politics. Every political tendency consists of -- or contains elements of -- an ideology.
During the Second World War, fascism, Nazism and communism were the central ideologies, which many Norwegians feared and opposed.