- Black -- not an unusual designation. Search for the skald, Ottar the Swarthy. Issues of ancient migrations to the north, of darker-hued-haired people, or not?
- Erik's sons did return to assert their claims, however, and one, Guttorm died in battle 953. The Danish king, Gorm the Old, supported them, but they lost -- Hakon had continued Harald's militia-army system.
- Earl Sigurd: An earl, Sigurd Hakonson (no relation) had favored Harald 1's son Hakon over the rough Erik, and outfitted Hakon (then age 18) with men and arms, initiating and feeding an insurgency. Hakon then went on to victory after Battle of Fitjar.
Harald I, 850-933, is venerated at Haugesund for his sea-fjord victory at Hafrsfjord just to the south, leading to full unification of much of Norway over time. With that military-naval overwhelm, he unified southern coastal Norway.
- Norse history is probably becoming more popular in Scotland, for example, now that it is known that much of Scots DNA is Norse, and not the English Anglo-Saxon, see http://www.scotsman.com/news/scotland-s-dna-who-do-you-think-you-are-part-4-1-1503458. And Normans, Northmen, bridge both the English and Scots cultures, and skip over to the Irish invaded by Vikings, then Normans, and English, and Scots, etc.
- What Harald subdued: Norse chiefdoms in the islands, Orkney, Faroe, Shetland, Hebrides. Installed earls (not royal lines) to rule for him. Fought Scots king about 900 AD. Norway First Kingdom.
- What Harald instituted: militias. Leidgangr. Order: each man must provide his own weapon, of quality suiting his station.
This dull construct resembles the Washington Monument-style obelisk, and is equally dull and unimaginative. How many repetitive phallic Cleopatra's needle shapes in east-west culture do we have to endure, see http://www.christian-restoration.com/fmasonry/obelisks.htm. Flags and standing stones representing area government-districts, towns, surround, as though minions at worship. This monument is different from the three swords aimed at the sky at Hafrsfjord. One family cannot go to them all.
Harald Fairhair, monument at Haraldshaugen, Norway, park view.
Haraldshaugen is a popular field trip site for kids.
Norwegian schoolchildren at Haraldshaugen, monument to Harald Fairhair. Note all the fair hair.
Plaques explain events on a pathway around and about Haraldshaugen, this display leading to a sea view is placed at the kind of cattle-sheep barrier often seen: round pipes secured with gaps between, so the animal can see down and stop before proceeding. The gaps are not wide enough to trap a leg, we were told, but the animal will not try to set hoof to it. Ingenious. Cheap. Low maintenance. Weatherproof. Excellent. Cattle and sheep may safely graze close to town.
Daniel Widing examines plaque at Haraldshaugen, Norway, near sheep barrier
Watch your step on the path. These pipe-barriers also are easy for cyclists to cross without getting off the bike.
View of the Sound: each standng stone (these are new, of course) are inscribed with names-places(?) all ending with the suffic FYLKI and I cannot find a translation. Are these the groups subjugated by Harald I? Hordafylki, Firdefylki, Sunnmeerafylke, Raumosoelafylke, Nordmeerafylke, Orkoleekfylki, Gaulderlafylki, Strindafylki, and these three on one: St. Jordoela, Skeyna, Verdoela (did these have fylke's as well?).
2. Life of Harald Fairhair.
Much is misty about Harald I's life and accomplishments, with written records (tales recorded) coming about 250 years after his death, as by Snorri Sturluson, with his Christian overlays tainting it all in the Prologue at p.4, site, but later tales may or may not be more authentic, see . Inherited kingdom of Halfdan when Harald was about 12. Began unification. See Norway - The First Kingdom, at http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=Norway_the_first_kingdom
We preferred the outdoor plaques to the monument itself,as more informative: here, a Viking ship that looks like a tribute to Harald I's victory over other regional kings here, on the sea, and at Hafrsfjord a/k/a Havsfjord, somewhat to the south, see http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Harald_I_of_Norway.html/
B. Krosshaug. Fast-walk past the phallic obelisk and the little children, and find Erik Bloodaxe. The cross memorial to Erik Bloodaxe is visible from Harald's monument. Just find a path and weave your way.
Krosshaug, memorial to Erik Bloodaxe information board, Haraldshaug, Norway.
Keep your eye on the cross to get there. Krosshaug, Erik Bloodaxe at Haraldshaugen. Eirik, some spell.
The cross for Erik Bloodaxe appears far more authentic than just another obelisk: here, an ancient cross with iron-rusted reinforcement, located in overgrown areas, with paths, just over a little rise from the silly needle.
Erik Bloodaxe. He participated fully in the violence of succession in Norway, as in the rest of Europe of the day and today, then elected to fade away instead of fighting yet another battle. This the son of Harald I who, after battling brothers for supremacy upon the death of Harald, finally had the wisdom to leave the potboiling place, and return to Britain, and rule in York. He voted himself out of all that. Wise. Gonna study war no more. He is the wisest Viking we found. One who said, enough, and moved beyond violence to an apparently productive, peacable life.
- Asterisks in this expanded chronology indicate that details are already at http://norwayroadways.blogspot.com/2013/12/norway-unification-religion-politics.html/
- This post for Harald I does not supplant the long narrative Norway Unification information earlier provided, but tries to reconcile conflicting information. Some we still cannot figure out. What we get wrong, we try to correct, fast. Research ongoing. Past murky.
- New site just found and some information used here: Norway - The First Kingdom, by Bersirkir (Berserker -- great name (see http://www.therianthropes.com/berserker_history.htm). First Kingdom: at http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=norway_the_first_kingdom
Yet another attempt to grasp Norwegian early history
Halfdan the Black 810-860, a lesser king, in Vestfold * [details at Norway Unification, above]. Son is Harald I.
- Born 850, reigned 872-933. A/k/a Harald Fairhair, a/k/a Harald Finehair, a/k/a Harald Harfagr.* A son of Halfdan the Black.
Erik Haraldsson, son of Harald I, a/k/a Erik Bloodaxe, or Eirik Bloodaxe.
- Ruled 930-933 with his father Harald *
- Ruled 933-934 or perhaps 936 -- as sole King. Upended by his brother, Hakon the Good, with the aid of the Earl of Lade-Halogaland, Sigurd Hakonson (no relation). Erik left for York, a Norse town.
- Ruled in York 936-954 or so. Fell in 954 in England (Britain at the time?), against King Ethelred, so the cross at Haraldshaugen is not a burial marker.
- Ruled 936-960, also known as Haakon the Good, Hakon the Good * Died 971.
- Haakon I, Haakon the Good replaced Erik Bloodaxe who was unpopular for having killed another brother, Bjorn the Merchant. Urged and financed by Earl Sigurd, Sigurd Hakonson (not related), Haakon I returned from England with military-naval might, and Erik fought a while then left and went to England and ruled in Norse York instead of Norway until finally defeated by English-Anglo-Saxon (?) King Ethelred.
- 960 to perhaps 965, also known as Harald Grafeldr, or Harald Greycloak of Norway, a son of Erik Bloodaxe, whose mother was a sibling of Bluetooth, see below.
- 961 - Harald Greycloak, Greyfell, Grayfall, Greyfur, joined with Harald Bluetooth against Haakon I, Hakon the Good, and were victorious. Harald II ruled 961-971 or so. Died 976; Need to confirm. Wiki on Greycloak: see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harald_Greycloak
- 962 - Greycloak captured Earl Sigurd, Sigurd Hakonson, who had helped Hakon the Good to power, and burned him up inside a house (mentioned because this dispatch method also used in the Burnt Njal's Saga, do a search). See note designated ** below. Other sources, note how they admire Grayfall, the object of treachery by Bluetooth and Hakon, say Greyfall was hanged. See http://www.sepo.net/books/early-kings-of-norway/harald-greyfell-and-brothers/
- 971 - Hakon died, no real efforts to Christianize anybody, nor did Bluetooth until he had to, pressed by Holy Roman Empire, ultimate church militant, covert or die. Very Christian.
- Complications of loyalties ensued, with Denmark as of 971 rising to superpower status in Scandinavia, see Norway First Empire.
- Here we go with Sigurd Hakonson and Hakon Sigurdson
- Son of Sigurd Hakonson, Earl Sigurd; was killed ultimately by Bluetooth
- Earl Sigurd was then replaced, by Bluetooth, by Hakon Sigurdson (see below) as the next Earl, a son of Sigurd Hakonson
- Hakon Sigurdson was installed as earl in Norway, subject to Bluetooth, see below
Harald Bluetooth 964 -- and events with Earl Hakon Sigurdson in Norway
- Ruling in Denmark at the time; historically supported Haakon I, Hakon the Good who replaced Erik Bloodaxe, back in time, then Hakon died . See http://bogomilia.blogspot.com/2010/10/harald-bluetooth-i-harald-bluetooth.html
- 971 - on death of Hakon the Good, and sponsoring Harald Greyfur (son of Erik Bloodaxe) as next king in Norway, Bluetooth shifted allegianve to Hakon Sigurdson.
- Hakon Sigurdson was the son of Earl Sigurd, Sigurd Hakonson, who had been killed by Greyfur and Bluetooth
- Bluetooth killed Harald Greyfur, see note ** below, and Norway became subject state to Denmark, under Earl Hakon, Hakon Sigurdson (later Hakon the Great, see below)
- Then trouble.
- 974 - Bluetooth asked his subject Earl Hakon, Hakon Sigurdson, to help defend Norway against the Holy Roman Empire pushing north in Denmark.
- Hakon did, but no success.
- Bluetooth then agreed to convert Denmark and Norway in order to avoid invasion by the HRE. Bluetooth first installed missionaries (he lost to the HRE) on the ships with Hakon, and Hakon hated that and sent the priests packing back to Denmark.
- Hakon then refused to pay his taxes to Bluetooth, and asserted Norwegian independence of Denmark.
- . Home fast.
- Retribution. About 985 - Bluetooth sent 300 longships to Norway, manned by Jomsvikings (see Google book, Saga of the Jomsvikings) and Danes.
- Hakon Sigurdson then mustered a leidgangr (remember - every man had to provide himself with a weapon as befits his station) but only rallied some 150 longships. Danes had already recruited there.
- Hakon nonetheless, outmanned, defeated the Danes at Hjorungavagr, see video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XT0-nNqPglU, and some began to call Hakon Sigurdson by a new name, Hakon the Great.
- Video cites Jomsvikings as from Denmark and Slavonia. Slavonia is Croatia area. Why that connection? Early migrations from Slavonia? Explains references to black and swarthy among Scandinavians?
- Bluetooth went back to Denmark, see http://norwayroadways.blogspot.com/2013/12/norway-unification-religion-politics.html
- 995 - Hakon Sigurdson was killed by his servant-slave-thrall named Kark.
Note **. Plot thickening.
Gold Harald -- nephew of Harald Bluetooth in Denmark, whose name reflects his success as a Viking. See the interactions of him and all the sons of Erik Bloodaxe competing for power, at Harald Greyfell and Brothers, at http://www.sepo.net/books/early-kings-of-norway/harald-greyfell-and-brothers/
- Plot with Bluetooth:
- Gold-Harald would save some of his finest ships for the beck and call of Bluetooth, Gold Harald also would kill Harald Grayfall, Harald Greyfell, Harald Greyfur-Greycloak, then claim Norway. Review all of them at Harald Greyfell, above. The descriptions of the plots are a fine diversion from dry accounts.
- However, after the deed was done (the burning or was it hanging of Harald Greyfur, Grayfall), Hakon Sigurdson still as earl in Norway, had Gold-Harald killed. See Early Kings site above. treachery.
- This angered Bluetooth who joined with Haakon the Good. Ultimately, Haakon the Good reneged in helping Bluetooth, the Holy Roman Emperor joined in the fray. Convert or die, the Christian way, Jesus wants you dead, etc.
- Olaf I ultimately failed in Christianizing Norway.
- And, in 1000, he was defeated when Swedes and Danes united their fleets, combining for 400 ships under Olof Skottkonung and Svein Forkbeard, son of Bluetooth, against a mere 100 for Olaf. Olaf was killed at sea battle, at Svolder. This put all southeast Norway under Danish control. In the rest of Denmark, two sons of Hakon the Great, Hakon Sigurdson, and -- what is this, Eirik also, and both as vassals of Denmark for 16 years? See All Empires site.
Olaf II 1016-1028, Olaf Haraldsson, Olaf the Fat, Saint Olaf *
- KINGS OF NORWAY AND DENMARK
- Knud 1028-1030 *. Also spelled Cnut. Defeated Olaf II at Stiklestad
- Svend 1030-1035, Sven Forkbeard, son of Harald Bluetooth, see NNDB, at http://www.nndb.com/people/718/000093439/ He had a son, Canute, another topic. Svien, Sweyn deposed Bluetooth, also -- in 1013 -- became king of England see http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-lincolnshire-25341754/
- Cruel, even for those times, see BBC site, so perhaps that is why Brits forget him. But real evidence is sparse, allowing rumors to run. Recall also that Ethelred the Unready in England ordered all Danes slaughtered in England, 1002 CE or so.
BACK TO KINGS OF NORWAY ITSELF --
As we find memorials or battlefields, will add. That is the intent. This is a placeholder so we can make sense of it all. Count the Haralds, Sigurds, Magnuses, Olafs, Inges, Eriks, Sverres.
Harald III 1047-1066, a/k/a Harald Hardrada *
- Magnus I - had fled to Russia, returned to help defeat Cnut, became king of Sweden *
Olaf III 1069-1093
Haakon II 1093-1095 -- Is this Haakon the Frenzied? Haakon Eriksson, who was vassal king under the son of Cnut, another Cnut? *
Magnus III 1095-1103
Eystein I 1103-1122 or 1123
Olaf IV 1103-1115
Magnus 1142-1145 (same dates as Eystein)
Haakon III 1157-1162
Magnus 1161-1184, descendant of Orm Sveinsson
Haakon IV 1223-1263
Magnus IV 1263-1280,
Erik II 1280-1299,
Haakon V 1299-1319