Varg Vikernes, see the Burzum site. His own ideological beliefs, apparently supremacist: does that negate other scholarship. See concerns for actions at http://loudwire.com/burzum-varg-vikernes-stand-trial-inciting-racial-hatred/ . A reading of the research does not raise alarms about arousing hatreds. Keep watching.
1. The standing stone at Tingvoll.
The standing stone is clear reference to the indigenous religion, and tolerance of it in the new loose Christianity. Aside from the standing stone in the churchyard here at Tingvoll, this structure shows religious stages from construction in the mid 1100's; see chronology FN 1 The construction was Romanesque. Then came Gothic fashion adjustments with older rounded arches remodeled into arches.
2. Nonideological, decorative wall patterns. The endless design, as in Celtic weaving motifs.
These wall-patterns on the wooden slats inside repeat and repeat. The original walls were plain, not painted. The acanthus swirls here date from 1738-39, see Lutheran Churches in Early Modern Norway at p. 299. There are no ideological representations, just a lovely, vibrant, series of swirls, sworls, swurles, swerles, swarles with bird-eyes, and swirls, like impossibly colored clouds and feathers. No ideology being imposed, just energy. Looks gnostic to me, a reference perhaps to a past, and not dogmatic.
Acanthus: used on classical Corinthian columns in architecture, Greek, and also symbolic of the sun in Greek Culture. The sun also vital symbolically to Norse culture. Did Norse painters slide this motif, with old Greek "pagan" and Norse "heathen" references, past the Lutheran ideologues. See http://www.burzum.org/eng/library/the_kingdom_of_the_sun.shtml
- Varg Vikernes, iconoclast, musician, independent writer, suggests Templar influences in Norway, a place of refuge after mainland Europe erupted against them in 1313. The conversion of Christian III triggered the Reformation in Norway. Whether there really was 600 years of Catholicism, however, see http://www.kirken.no/english/engelsk.cfm?artid=5730 is disputed by Varg Vikernes at the burzum.org site above. Vikernes sees a strong continuance of old rituals and symbols along with the new, in the context of a long-standing Gnostic tradition (including Templars), that only tilted strongly Catholic after the Black Death in 1350, and Catholic priests filling the empty religious slots. Vet.
- Is the encircled cross there a Templar sign, that this can be a place of safety, or is it merely a consecration mark, one of many, and just an indication that a bishop at some point consecrated this place? See same cross on walls at Barcelona Templar chapel, see http://spainroadways.blogspot.com/2013/10/barcelona-royal-chapel-minor-interior.htm/ The parish brochure identifies these as consecration marks.
- A Templar rite, its history, is a topic of other scholars' interest, see http://www.ntnu.edu/employees/sebastian.salvado/. Then ask how and why the mass murderer Brevik invoked the Templar history, and an overview of their times and perhaps modern links is found at http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/sociopol_masonsknightstemplar05.htm/ Vet, vet. What to believe?
Olav Tryggvason, Olav I, 960 or so to 1000, engaged in forcible conversions to Chritianity. Olaf II Haraldsson 995-1030 followed suit, was forced into exile, returned to fight to regain the throne against the Danish King Canute and was killed in battle against Canute at Stiklestad. Successive Christian kings (long lists at http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/NORWAY.htm/) spread Christianity more widely but with a more benign inclusion of old ways, such as holidays and symbols and heroes melting into new Christian molds. The new "Christianity" was not immediately dogmatic, not Catholic, but rather seems to be a more formal extension of Christian ideas coexisting with the earlier indigenous and gnostic. See ideas at http://www.burzum.org/eng/library/the_viking_age_and_christianity_in_norway.shtml/ and vet.
As to the indigenous religion before Christianity, sources vary. Were the accounts of "heathen" practices really so, or propaganda as happens in any era? UNICEF Culture Sector lists Northvegr for Northern European Studies texts.